Wednesday, July 8, 2020
ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a funny thing Ã¢â¬â law schools are pretty much all the same, but they think of themselves so differently. All 1L students (pretty much) take the same courses: contracts, torts, civil procedure, constitutional law, property, and criminal law. Almost all law school students graduate with debt. All law schools produce a similar variety of lawyers Ã¢â¬â lawyers at firms, in-house counsels, prosecutors, defense attorneys, and a smattering of other positions. But law schools, importantly, see themselves quite differently. If you go to Stanford LawÃ¢â¬â¢s homepage, it is all about intellectual property, technology law, and copyright. If you go to YaleÃ¢â¬â¢s, it is more about appellate litigation, clerkships, the judiciary, and academia. Georgetown has a humanities track for 1Ls. Berkeley and NYU have a history of activist lawyering and work in criminal justice. UVA was very involved with school desegregation. UCLA and USC emphasize their well-established ties with the entertainment industry. So, while there are pronounced differences, they are ultimately more similar than different. That said, when writing your essays for each school, you need to emphasize that you understand these differences. Law schools like to think they are all very different, and the more you can tap into that self-conception, the better. Furthermore, they like to see that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve done your homework. All things equal, whom do they want? The applicant who really seems to want to go, as evidenced by their tremendous research into the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s offerings, or the applicant who didnÃ¢â¬â¢t care as much? This research process is even more important once you have offers in hand. Then you really want to know what each school has to offer. Doing this work on the front end can help make fielding offers much easier on the backend. When researching law schools, here are some things you want to consider. I suggest keeping a careful spreadsheet with all of this information Ã¢â¬â it can be easy to forget when you donÃ¢â¬â¢t keep track, and you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to have to repeat work. Some things to think about on round two include: The homepage Like I mentioned above, how does this school present itself? What they emphasize online can be a good indication of the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s vibe and priorities. Student faculty ratio The smaller the better Faculty What faculty really seem to be doing work that matters to you? Any research projects that you might want to assist on? Course offerings What looks unique and how do these offering match your interests? Some more niche legal areas include Art law Technology and the law Healthcare law Intellectual property Maritime law Private international law Regulatory law Student journals and law reviews Any that particularly appeal to you? Available clinics Extra-curricular activities Moot court and mock trial opportunities Employment opportunities How well does this school do with the jobs you are most interested in, including, Big law Clerkships Academic job placement Federal or local government placement Alumni Who inspires you? Who has followed a career trajectory you would be excited to pursue? Special tracks or programs For example, UCLA has a special public service track, and Georgetown has a night-law and part-time option. On-campus experience/facilities Do most students live on campus? Local shared houses? Traditions/culture Scavenger hunts? Campus runs? Finals traditions? Regional versus national reputation Some law schools are more regional, training all sorts of lawyers for one geographic area. Some are more national, producing lawyers that spread out all over the country. The general rule is that the T20ish schools are more national; lower ranked schools tend to be more local. This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t always the case though (especially for schools in California) so it is an important research area depending on your goals. What kind of aid do they offer? Harvard, Yale, and Stanford only offer need based financial aid. Other law schools have a host of merit scholarships, some that can even reach the full ride level. Careful research about what kind of scholarship opportunities, and when you have to apply for them. Reputation from your network Talk to people who graduated from the school! This can often be the best source of information. But remember to take everything with a grain of salt, especially extreme opinions. At this stage, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no such thing as too much research. When you are thinking about your essay, pick 2-3 of the things that stuck out the most to you when researching, and talk about why the matter to you, excite you, and attract you that school. When weighing your eventual options, look more collectively at all the data youÃ¢â¬â¢ve gathered to determine the best fit. Read part 1 of Jimmy's series here. Whether youÃ¢â¬â¢re just beginning on this race, or whether you just need a final push to get you over the finish line, your tutor will design a customized road map that will take you through every aspect of the application process, covering LSAT preparation, recommendations, the personal statement, addenda, and anything else that you need. Applicants who follow our structured approach find that they are less stressed out and more successful. ; Applying to law school in 2019-20? Check out some other helpful blog posts from Jimmy below! Law School Admissions: Drafting the personal statement Law School Admissions: Deciding whether to retake the LSAT Law School Admissions: Deciding on the diversity statement
Thursday, July 2, 2020
Critical Analysis of Meyer's Book Entitled 'Literature to go' (Essay Sample) Content: Name:Instructor:Course:Date:Critical Analysis of The American BeautyÃ MovieThe "American Beauty" movie is one of the outstanding films written and directed by Alan Ball and Sam Mendes respectively way back in the 2000. The movie is all about a main character known as Lester Burnham. This is a mere character that seems to be in a constant search for happiness. He is an ordinary man who falls at the age group of forties. Lester Burnham is trapped in a loveless matrimony due to the fact that Carolyn Burnham, his wife, is marred with the ultimate thoughts that the most essential thing in life is success. She thus neglects him because of her absolute obsession towards her career. Here, Lester mentions often that Carolyn does not acknowledge him at all. On the other hand, his daughter known as Jane Burnham tends to elicit an emotional distance from him, and is fond of claiming that Lester was pathetic and wretched in nature. At the start of the movie, Lester was initiall y informed on the higher probability of losing his occupation. All these negative factors culminate dramatically into the ultimate feelings of vulnerability and desperation for him. Transformation and changes begins to be witnessed at the time when he was introduced to Angela Hayes, the daughter's friend. Lester overheard a chat between Angela and Jane, whereby Angela asserts that she can have sexual intimacy with him only if he begins building up and working-out his body. The ultimate thought of the teenage girl terming Lester as being "hot", excites him to a greater extent thus bringing out Lester's significant transformation throughout the film (Streisand Barbra, 76).The first analysis is on the scene whereby Lester initially spots Angela. It is a moment when Carolyn and Lester had decided offer greater support to Jane at school whereby she was involved in a dancing performance. The scene is more significant since it depicts how Lester starts rebelling against his usual nature, primarily due to Angela's sexuality. This scene kick starts at the moment when Carolyn and Lester arrive at the pitch right before their daughters performance. As the entire performance begun, Angela is almost immediately accorded an upward position within the camera framework. By giving her an essentially upward position in the frame, there is thus a suggestion that she is eventually noticed by Lester. Angela thus gets Lesters attention as the entire scene continues.The second analyzed scene is the one occurring towards the endpoint of the movie when Lester's dreams and fantasies are almost becoming a reality. The scene is essential due to the fact that it depicts the second turning point of events that essentially transforms Lester once again. The only variation is that this time round he transforms back to his original nature marred with the ultimate realization of the meaning of happiness.The onset of the scene is characterized with the perspective whereby Lester moves closer to wards Angela Hayes who is eventually lying down on a couch. Here, the camera pans towards the right position then down while following Lesters actions. It actually builds up suspense towards what might occur next. The downward movement tends to imply a rather negative action. The negative act in this case is that of Lester's sexual propensity towards a teenager. The downward movement also implies that something was lost; in this ultimate case being the loss of Angelas virginity.The next significant shot is that of Angelas appearance at an angle of 45 degrees within the frame. It is regarded as the Dutch-angle shot whereby a camera is essentially is tilted from the normal vertical and horizontal position. The Dutch-angle emphasizes on the unusual nature of the frames actions (Malone Peter et.al, 87). For this case, it exemplifies Angelas unnatural reaction due to the perspective of almost having a first sexual experience. As the entire scene progresses, the camera significantly pans from right to left and left to right because of Lester's hands going up and down the Angela's body. It actually intensifies greater erotic feeling within the scene.In the other shot, the camera is moved towards a vibrant crane shot that shows Lester's hands unfastening Angela's shirt. A crane shot refers to a shot obtained from an ultimate camera that is mounted onto the elevating arm. This shot is thus followed by what is regarded as a shot-reverse shot involving Lester and Angela looking at each other (Malone Peter et.al, 91). Angela was essentially given a lower angle shot while looking up towards Lester in this scene. The low-angle shot typically places an observer at the realm of a helpless feeling in presence of a more superior force. In short, it gives greater emphasis on the aspects of anxiety, vulnerability, and fear. On the other hand, the aspect of Angela looking up towards Lester implies on the heights of Lesters control. However, Angela's position within the ultimate frame seems to ...
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Morgan T. Bishop J. Lindberg English 1102 19 March 2015 Oil Disasters and the Negative Impact to the World and Its Inhabitants Oil is considered to be a vital resource in the world today. Such material is used for a variety of reasons, ranging from the gas used in automobiles to the generation of electricity in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s household. According to Congressional Digest, forty percent of the NationÃ¢â¬â¢s energy comes from oil (Effects of Oil Spills on Wildlife 168). One problem that arises with the world being so dependent on this substance is oil moving through pipelines from one country to another. This problem has made the spilling of oil rather unavoidable. These spills are dangerous, for they jeopardize the well-being of innocent wildlife, ourÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Animals that breathe under water, or eat food that live and grow beneath the water, can suffer from health issues caused by the inhalation of this toxic substance, potentially damaging internal organs. Liver damage, fin erosion, a change in heart rate, and death are all potential health complications that oil can cause for these inno cent creatures. As for the mammals that live in the ocean, this substance is just as harmful. Although mammals do not breathe or inhale the oil under water, the oil is still life threatening to them. As the harmful elements of the oil begin to settle into the depths of the water, it is likely to settle on and sink into the skin and fur of these animals. This is dangerous because it irritates the skin leaving open wounds, which can eventually cause infection and become life altering to these creatures (Effects of Oils Spills on Wildlife 170). The oil is also threatening to mammals as they consume their food. If their prey has been contaminated by oil, the animal is then digesting the oil which can cause immune system damage, organ damage, and possibly result in fatality. The death of these animals in essence causes problems for the remainder of the animals that survive, such as a lack of food and a lower reproduction rate. The ecosystem is also greatly affected by oil spills. On
Kishan Desai HIST 101-001 Winter 2017 The Plague The Plague Documentary Review The documentary focused on the black plague. The plague was a deadly bacterial disease which devastated Middle Age society. The documentary showed how the disease originated, how it spread, and the effects of it on society then and after. The plague started in the east with the Mongols and moved to west through trade with the Europeans. It then spread through fleas on rats on merchant ships in Europe. The disease had beginning symptoms of just fever, chills, and high temperature like the flu today then it escalated to buboes which are large swelling colored whelps on the body. The people started to spread the plague easily because of the diseaseÃ¢â¬â¢s highlyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The video was not formatted very well which made it very hard to follow. The names of some of the scholars were cut off. The quality of twenty five percent of the documentary was horrible because of very high pixilation which made it almost unwatchable. The documentar y was also hurt by the repetitive scenes it kept replaying when there was someone speaking. The documentary appealed to logic when the pope at the beginning of the film had full-fledged trust in God to make sure the plague did not affect him. The pope at the time was a higher power than kings at the time. He slowly as more people started to die started to lose trust. He started to listen to his personal surgeon and at one point was in his palace with fires all around him to protect him from the plague. He eventually would flee to his country side estate much like the rest of the nobility. They slowly tried to convince you that if even the pope is starting to question God, then imagine the people fright. The documentary appealed to emotion when it showed King Edward the ThirdÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter happy about her marriage. She was portrayed as a beautiful, happy princess set to be married and was vacationing on her way to meet your fiancÃ ©e. She was the most heavily guarded woman in al l of Europe. The plague killed her before she met her fiancÃ ©e. The filmmakers did a good job of convincing the audience that even armies could not stop the wrath of the plague. The documentary appealed to prejudice whenShow MoreRelatedSusan Sontag, Illness As Metaphor, And AIDS And Its Metaphor1128 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesto date, AIDS, a real modern-day plague. However, when analyzing the terminology and metaphors discussed during the AIDS epidemic, many academic scholars such as Susan Sontag view the conversation around AIDS as a plague as counterproductive. This view is clear when reading SontagÃ¢â¬â¢s essay, Illness as Metaphor and AIDS and Its Metaphor, where a reader can interpret that nations failings while handling the epidemic was caused by a negative perception of the word plague. Although, Sontag is correct inRead MoreComedy : Blood Demons Will Come And Take Our Children1026 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbe tackled in comedic ways. In this analysis, I will consider The Comedia ns of Comedy (Michael Blieden, 2005) and argue that through the recording of events as they occur, interviews, and problem solving, the documentary uses humor to promote liberal politics while identifying social problems plaguing the United States. The recording of events as they occur is a method of presentation used primarily to capture the leftist comedy of Patton Oswalt. The documentary opens with Patton performing his setRead MoreMovie Analysis: American History X1349 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesI decided to analyze for this course was American History X (1998), which stars Edward Norton. Though this movie isnÃ¢â¬â¢t widely known, it is one of the more interesting movies I have seen. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s probably one of the best films that depict the Neo Nazi plague on American culture. The film takes place from the mid to late 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s during the Internet boom, and touches on subjects from affirmative action to Rodney King. One of the highlights of this movie that really relates to one of the key aspects of thisRead MoreThe Film Of The Cage Directed By Coco Fusco And Paula Heredia1955 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe documentary The Couple in the Cage directed by Coco Fusco and Paula Heredia consists of a video record about performance art in 1990s and a 1930s Hollywood film. In the video record, two performance artists dress up as indigenous from Gulf of Mexico and are declared by the guide that they cannot speak English (CIC). They come to some cities such as Chicago, Washington D.C., Minneapolis, New York City in U.S., Madrid in Sydney and Sydney in Australia (CIC), and they are put themselves in a bigRead MoreAnti Semitism On France Before, During And Post Dreyfus Affair2837 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesstuck to their religious roots and have not given up on their culture or their beliefs in spite of risking violence and hatred from many cultures that they live amongst. In France especially, the history of anti-semitism stems back from the Black Plague of Europe and rose and fell depending of the emotional standing of the people of the country and different times. This paper will discuss the history of this anti-semitism in france, the historical events that caused much strife for the jewish peopleRead MoreRecoveri ng The Indigenous Past : The Mandan People Who Lived And Still Breathe At The Heart Of The World1866 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthe U.S. Corps of Discovery in 1804. In particular, Fenn consciously keeps the narrative on these two individuals rather than their Euro-American counterparts, specifically how Chief Good Boy took the Ã¢â¬Å"lead in forging order from [the] chaosÃ¢â¬ of the plague, and how Sheheke-shote negotiated with Lewis and Clark and accompanied them back to Washington DC, where he met with Thomas Jefferson (p. 165). It is here that Fenn again reveals a knack for not falling into the proverbial trap of resorting to theRead MoreCrimes and Misdemeanors2572 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesverbally involves the use of eyes to symbolize our perceptions on how we see the world, and how people do not see themselves and events the way others may see it. Although there are several elements, characters, and events worthy of an individual analysis, this paper will concentrate on how Alle n s film represents eyes to unveil hidden truths. To illustrate the use of eyes in this film I will investigate its role in the lives of Judah, Cliff, and Rabbi Ben. Keep in mind that all four of theseRead MoreBrazil: Environmental Problems and Solutions.2094 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesBrazil, they cut down vast swaths of forest to clear land and plant the crops they would need to survive in their new land (Rich, 1999). This practice has continued over the years in various incarnations, but as a rate that is unchecked. In the documentary film Carboneiros, filmmakers expose the devastation inflicted on Brazils hardwood forests by peasants who burn down the trees in order to sell charcoal for a living. Carboneiros deftly portrays the dilemma that characterizes almost all of BrazilsRead MoreHealthcare Reform: A Look at the Kaiser Permanente Model2478 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesgone to a national system has never gone back. Looking at our GDP in comparison to other countries that have nationa lized healthcare can paint a fairly clear picture of this. The figures of percent of GDP on healthcare expenditure presented by documentary film correspondent on healthcare issues and reporter, Thomas R. Reid, in his book The Healing of America (2005) are as follows: USA 15.3%, Switzerland 11.6%, France 11.1%, Canada 9.8%, Sweden 9.1%, UK 8.3%, and Taiwan 6.2%. In all of these countriesRead MoreThe Innocence Project3514 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesthrough these cases from global problems like poverty and racial issues to criminal justice issues like eyewitness misidentification, invalid or improper forensic science, false confessions and Government Misconduct cannot be ignored and continue to plague their criminal justice system . * Eyewitness misidentification: Is the single greatest cause of wrongful convictions nationwide, playing a role in more than 75% of convictions overturned through DNA testing .While eyewitness testimony can be
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Justin Hanna 8/18/15 US History-Block E Chapter 4.1-4.4 Notes Section 4.1 Describe the meaning of secession. Secession, specifically Southern Secession, is when a state breaks off from the Union to form its own system of government with rules of its own. What is the significance of popular sovereignty? Popular sovereignty allowed each state to vote for whether or not slavery should be allowed in that state. This was the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt to satisfy both the North and the South. What is the Underground Railroad? The Underground Railroad was a secret Ã¢â¬Å"railroad systemÃ¢â¬ created by abolitionists to hide runaway slaves. Who is Harriet Tubman and what is her significance? Harriet Tubman was a famous Ã¢â¬Å"conductorÃ¢â¬ of the Underground Railroad. She travelled back to the south 19 times and helped around 300 slaves, two of them being her own parents. Who is Harriet Beecher Stowe? Harriet Beecher Stowe was an anti-slavery author who wrote and published the novel Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin to try to convince people that slavery is not only politically controversial, but morally straining. What made Franklin Pierce significant? Franklin Pierce was a Democratic candidate who won thanks to the harsh fall of the Southern Whig vote. Who is Dred Scott? Dred Scott was a slave who tried to get his freedom by appealing to the Supreme Court on the grounds that living in a free territory granted him his freedom. He was denied his freedom because slaves were considered property and property wasShow MoreRelatedSummary Of Uncle Tom s Cabin By Harriet Beecher Stowe1400 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHarriet Beecher Stowe, the author of Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin; this novel poignantly explores the realities of slavery. ElizaÃ¢â¬â¢s Flight: A Scene from Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin, a cover of sheet music, foreshadows the imminent abolishment of slavery and encourages abolitionists to continue supporting the cause. The image sends the message of positivity and persistence to slaves and freedmen; it simultaneously appeals to Northern viewers through its use of emotion. Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin captured the horrors of war so effectivelyRead MoreSummary Of Harriet Beecher Stowe s Uncle Tom s Cabin 1124 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbranded, beat and imprisoned. Slavery was a dehumanizing act brought forth by many Americans in the North and South. One of the greatest authors of all time was a Ã¢â¬Å"little lady who caused the great warÃ¢â¬ with her best-selling anti-slavery novel Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin. Harriet Beecher Stowe changed the world with her powerful words and outstanding novels that shaped society today. The words quoted are known to come from President Abraham Lincoln when he met Stowe. Harriet Elisabeth Stowe was born a BeecherRead MoreUncle Tom s Cabin By Chapter Summary And Arrangement Of The Book1024 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBrief Summary and Arrangement of the Book: The book Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin is about slavery in the South. The book follows Eliza, a mother living in Kentucky with the Shelbys. Eliza loved them as if they were her parents, but they fell into debt and Mr. Shelby had to sell two of his slaves: ElizaÃ¢â¬â¢s son and Uncle Tom. Eliza fearing for the life of her child fled to Canada. Part of the book focuses on her journey to Canada; being chased by slave catchers, and reuniting with her lost husband. The otherRead MoreUncle Toms Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe1144 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesUncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin has been explained as being a history of harmful acts towards Blacks in America for a period of a hundred and thirty years (Stowe, Ã¢â¬Å"NineteenthÃ¢â¬ ). 51).The book Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin was one of HistoryÃ¢â¬â¢s favorite book s (Stowe, Ã¢â¬Å"NineteenthÃ¢â¬ 1). It talks about how Tom would do anything for the white man (Stowe, Uncle 1). The southerners did not give Harriet Beecher Stowe and credit for writing the book (Piacentino 1). Uncle Tom showed a lot of Christianity in this book, but the masterRead MoreAnalysis Of The Novel Uncle Tom s Cabin 1345 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin their treatment of race, notably, Huckleberry Finn.Ã¢â¬ (Annette Gordon-Reed). I believe that StoweÃ¢â¬â¢s novel was taken seriously as a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s novel. Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin was very influential in that time period, and still is today. The novel is commonly noted as a big influence that began the Civil War, and people still refer to it today. Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin is used very commonly today as a reference to slavery and the time period, and in many literature courses throughout high school and college. It isRead MoreSlavery in American Literature1590 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesissue. Harriet Beecher Stowe The most important ante-bellum (pre-War work)was Harriet Beecher Stowes Uncle Toms Cabin (1852). Stowe was virtually unknown when she wrote the book. She was influenced by the experience s of two teenage Maryland slave girls, Emily and Mary Edmonson, who were rescued from being sold as fancy girls to New Orleans bordellos. The story of Eliza , Topsy, Uncle Tom, and Simon Legree electrified northern readers and theater goers, affecting northern attitudes toward slaveryRead MoreHarriet Beecher Stowe Essay1882 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesBiographical Summary Uncle Toms Cabin, written by Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe in 1852, made her the most widely known American woman writer of the 19th century. She was a housewife with six children, who opposed slavery with a passion. With the advice of her sister-in-law she decided to write this novel. Harriet or nicknamed Ã¢â¬Å"HattieÃ¢â¬ Beecher was born on June 14, 1811 in Litchfield, Connecticut. She was the sixth out of eleven children and was born into a family of powerful and demandingRead MoreThe Influence of the 1850s in Uncle Toms Cabin2754 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesThe Influence of the 1850s in Harriet Beecher Stowes Uncle Toms Cabin Despite heartbreaking family separations and struggles for antislavery Harriet Beecher Stowes Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) erupted into one of the greatest triumphs recorded in literary history (Downs 228), inspiring plays, pictures, poems, songs, souvenirs, and statues (Claybaugh 519). As Uncle Toms Cabin was being published in the National Era newspaper in forty weekly installments (x), it was received by southerners asRead MoreAfrican American Theater Essays1964 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAfrican-Americans to express the deep pain that the white population placed in front of them. Singing, dancing and acting took many African-Americans to a place that no oppressor could reach; considering the exploitation of their character during the 1930s-1960s Ãâacting was an essential technique to African American survival. Although the black performing arts population had to take the road of survival to gain self satisfaction in the theaterRead MorePricing And Profit Condition : Consumers Bias And The Influence Of The Dealer Costs On Retailers1666 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesconsumers of China do not trust e-commercial retailers since e-commerce market still has a rather shorter history in China. Most researchers found out that prices of most Dotcoms retailersÃ¢â¬â¢ products are lower than that of MCRs retailersÃ¢â¬â¢ products. 2.3 Summary of this chapter This part takes advantages of game theory and relevant theories of information economics to enlarge the Hotelling model; meanwhile, it conducts modeling analysis by referring to price competition issue between Dotcoms and MCRs. Through
a. Stem cells are a very unique and useful medical advancement. The basic idea of a stem cell is: A cell that is able to differentiate into a specialized cell type. These are different from other cells, because each organ and body system has unique cells for their functions (Like how blood has red and white blood cells, while muscles have cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscle cells). Stem cell arenÃ¢â¬â¢t specialized for any function or organ yet, but are able to differentiate into a unique cell type when needed. b. Furthermore, stem cells come from two main sources: Embryo, and Adult tissues. Adult stem cells are found in the body after embryonic development. they lie dormant or unable to divide until activated by an injury or disease. TheyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦c. Diseases that benefit from the use of stem cells: Cancer, down syndrome, alzheimers, and possibly sickle cell disease. Diseases that can be treated by the use of stem cells: some forms of cancer, type 1 diabetes, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and even rheumatoid arthritis. d. There are a lot of moral and ethical issues raised when using stem cells. When harvesting embryonic stem cells scientist destroy the blastocyst before it can develop into a person. People also believe harvesting stem cells from an embryo is like murder, or abortion. Another issue people have is the creation of chimeras: an organism with both human and animal cells and tissues. Stem cell research sometimes require injecting human stem cells in animals or vise versa. Some people are against the creation of an organism that is Ã¢â¬Å"part humanÃ¢â¬ or a human that is Ã¢â¬Å"part animalÃ¢â¬ . Embryo stem cell harvesting has been made illegal in most european countries. In the U.S. it is illegal for the government to fund the research of stem cell lines that were created after August 2001. e. Positive effects of stem cell research are treatments of cell diseases, the ability to generate specific organs when needed. Also the ability to generate more cells to organs where cells canÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily divide. Negative effects are ethically based like the fact that the use of embryonic stem cells require harvesting and destroying human embryos. Another is the idea that stem cellShow MoreRelatedEmbryonic Stem Cell Research And Current Use1769 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesdiscussion in this report is ESCR (embryonic stem cell research) and current use. This issue causes controversial concerns because the first isolation of the embryo was in 1998, which is still very recent and the policies around it are grey areas. Many countries including the United States of America have removed funding because of issues that have risen due to religious, ethical and legal formalities. Some of the benefits that ESC (embryonic stem cells) promise are the cure for many diseases andRead More Foolis h to Ban the Use of Stem Cells in Research Essay1538 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFoolish to Ban the Use of Stem Cells in Research Ã Ã Ã Over the last century, humanity has created an impressive biological technology.Ã We have crafted an arsenal of vaccines and antibiotics to defend ourselves from the microscopic world of bacteria and viruses.Ã Ã We have developed the means to diagnose genetic problems, and we are developing means to treat them.Ã We have developed a huge number of synthetic substances to enhance human performance, and later human behavior.Ã We have geneticallyRead MoreControversy Surrounding Research And Therapeutic Use Of Stem Cell Technology831 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Controversy surrounding research and therapeutic use of stem cells has been a contentious and socially polarizing matter for a few decades. Arguments lie largely between the scientific community and the general public, although intragroup disagreements also persist today. These disparate views for and against stem cells arise out of the bioethical implications of an inchoate innovation, the general publicÃ¢â ¬â¢s tenuous understanding of the underlying technology itself, and sociopolitical ideologiesRead MoreStem Cells And The Ethics Behind Their Use1606 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStem Cells and the Ethics behind their Use Stem cells have the capability to become any type of cell. This process is possible because they are unspecialized and can divide to create new cells through cell division. Stem cells have the ability to become skin cells as well as organ cells (Stem Cell Information, 2015). There are two different types of stem cells which can be used in various ways. The first of the two is the embryonic stem cell which is found inside the embryo within its first few daysRead More Stem Cell Research Essay1316 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesStem Cell Research What is a Stem Cell? Stems cells are immature cells found in embryos that can develop into any kind of specialized cells. They can form virtually any cell of the human body. These types of stem cells are known as pluripotent cells. Multipotent cells are stem cells that are more mature; they can be found in adults and children. Multipotent cells are not as flexible as pluripotent cells, as they have already developed into more specialized human cells. Benefits of StemRead MoreThe Debate Of Stem Cell Research1660 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Great Stem Cell Debate In 1998, President Bill Clinton issued a National Bioethics Advisory Commission to begin to study the question of stem cell research (Stem Cells Fast Facts). Since then many advances have been made and stem cells have been used to aid in the alleviation of several medical conditions such as macular degeneration, bone marrow deficiencies, and growing new sheets of new skin for burn victims (Hug). Even though there is much stigma surrounding stem cell research, the medicalRead MoreStem Cell Research : Ethics, Cloning And Curing The Disease1220 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Research Paper Outline Stem Cell Research - Ethics, Cloning and Curing the Disease Introduction According to former Speaker of the House, John Boehner, Ã¢â¬ Stem cell research must be carried out in an ethical manner in a way that respects the sanctity of human life.Ã¢â¬ In recent events, stem cell research has caught the attention of the nation and stirred up controversy about the research and ethics along with it. Ethically, stem cell research has caught more attention than the research behindRead MoreThe Debate Over Stem Cells1144 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesadvance each day, the use of stem cells, in regards to research, is becoming extraordinarily prevalent. I believe that the use of stem cells is unethical to a certain extent. Stem cells are cells that are able to renew themselves as well as the ability to generate specialized cells. Scientists refer to these tiny, magnificent cells as stem cells because many different types of cells can stem from them. Stem cells have the ability to develop into other cell types that mature into cells that have specializedRead MoreIs Stem Cell Research Ethical?1252 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Is Stem Cell Research Ethical? The question that has been asked so many times, is stem cell research ethical? To argue ethics over this topic, one must first know what a stem cell is.Stem Cells are Ã¢â¬Å"cells with the ability to divide for indefinite periods in culture and to give rise to specialized cellsÃ¢â¬ (Stem Cell Basics: Introduction). The National Institutes of Health say that stem cells are distinguished for two different reasons. The first is Ã¢â¬Å"they are unspecialized cells capable of renewingRead MoreStem Cell Research Debate1119 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Stem Cell Research Debate There are only a small number of issues that are controversial as far as the public, the government and scientists are concerned. The father of all issues, however, is the debate that revolves around the ethics of stem cell research. Stem cells can be defined as those cells in an embryo that essentially give rise to the entire organism (Capra, 1999). In the contemporary world of today, the issue of embryonic stem cell research is one of this controversial significant
Introduction Kangaroo care is defined as the way of Ã¢â¬Å"holding a preterm or full term infant so that there is skin-to-skin contact between the infant and the person holding it. The baby, wearing only a diaper, is held against the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s bare chest. Kangaroo Care (also Kangaroo Maternal [Mother] Care or Skin-to-Skin Contact and Breastfeeding) is a method used to restore the unique mother-infant. Mothers are more likely to be able to practice skin to skin contact or kangaroo care following a vaginal delivery versus a cesarean which is seen as a medical procedure and not a delivery. Infants born to mothers via cesarean are usually whisked away to a nursery and are separated from their mother for as long as two hours. Infants most alert period is the first one to two hours after delivery and most babies born via cesarean spend this time in the nursery away from their mothers and once they are reunited with their mothers they are now in a deeper sleep state and tend to not breastfeed as well as babies that are born vaginally and allowed skin to skin contact immediately. We will write a custom essay sample on The Benefits of Skin to Skin Contact for Momabd Baby or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This paper focuses on the need to change the way we take care of mothers and infants that give birth via cesarean and allow them the same bonding experience as mothers that give birth to their infants vaginally. Step 1: Assess the Need for Change in Practice The best way to promote change in a healthcare facility is to show how it will benefit the patients and improve the way they view the hospital. Currently during a caesarian section the newborn, immediately after delivery, is handed to the nurses and evaluated and assessed. The mother continues to get treatment as a surgical patient and the time frame of newborn to mother contact can be as long as 40 minutes. Nurses should look into the benefits to both mother and baby in regards to their health whenÃ they receive time to do skin to skin contact in the operating room (OR). Evaluate what potential obstacles could hinder the surgical procedure by doing skin to skin contact and come up with potential solutions so that skin to skin contact in the OR does not interfere with the surgical procedure. The PICOT question: P- newborn babies, I- Delayed time in parent/ person skin to skin time after birth, C- Encourage skin to skin time sooner after birth with parent/person, O- Encourage bonding, stabilize newborns heartbeat, temperature, and breathing. T- Within 6 months. Step 2: Link the Problem, Interventions, and Outcomes The problem with the delay in skin to skin contact is that for many years physicians have performed Cesarean sections in a certain way and therefore it becomes difficult when changing the way they practice this procedure. Hospital procedures are written and followed for many years and physicians can be very reluctant to change the way they practice. The first step is to show both the OB and Pediatric doctors the benefits to mother and baby skin to skin time. Some of these benefits include: stabilize the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s heartbeat (especially if they are preterm), temperature, and breathing. Researchers also have found that mothers who use kangaroo care often have more success with breastfeeding and also improve their milk supply. Further, researchers have found that infants who experience kangaroo care have longer periods of sleep, gain more weight, decrease their crying, have longer periods of alertness, and earlier hospital discharge (Kangaroo Care, 2010). The benefits to mom are Ã¢â¬Å"enhanced maternal-infant attachment bonding increased maternal self-confidence, increased maternal affectionate behavior, enhanced relaxation and experience less anxiety, less breast engorgement, and more rapid involution (uterus returning to pre-pregnant size)Ã¢â¬ (Kangaroo Care, 2010). These benefits could be shown to the physicians and nurses during their monthly meetings and also how improving a motherÃ¢â¬â¢s birth experience could raise hospital scores which can improve reimbursement rates in the future. Also showing the nurses and physicians that they can continue to do their jobs without the skin to skin contact causing major disruptions there is a better possibility for change. A protocol could be devised andÃ discussed in staff meetings, then possibly have a Ã¢â¬Å"mock cesarean surgeryÃ¢â¬ to show how it would work if the protocol was to be implemented. This allows the nurses and doctors a way to see it in action, see how it would impact their job duties, while also coming up with other interventions if needed. Step 3: Synthesize the Best Evidence Research has been done to assist in proving the importance of skin to skin contact of mother/ person and newborn. 1) One study talked about the effectiveness of skin-to-skin contact (SSC) after vaginal delivery, but had concerns after a cesarean section (Gouchon, 2010). It explained that after cesarean births, SSC is not done for practical and medical safety reasons because it is believed that infants may suffer mild hypothermia. The aim of this study was to compare mothers and newborns temperatures after cesarean delivery when SSC was practiced (naked baby except for a small diaper, covered with a blanket, prone on the mothers chest) with those when routine care was practiced (dressed, in the bassinet or in the mothers bed) in the 2 hours beginning when the mother returned from the operating room. Temporal temperatures were taken on the newborns with a thermometer at half-hour intervals. Results of the study showed that newborns who received routine care versus SSC cesarean-delivered, were not at risk for hypothermia due to both groups having almost identical temperatures. The average time from delivery to the mothers return to their room was 51 min. The SSC newborns attached to the breast earlier and the SSC mothers expressed high levels of satisfaction with the interventionÃ¢â¬ (Gouchon, 2010). This study showed that the skin to skin contact for the infants born via cesarean does not have a potential risk for hyperthermia, which was one of the theories that most doctors use as to why they feel skin to skin contact should not be allowed while mother was still in the OR. 2). This next study found that little to no SSC during the first two hours after birth is associated with less infant self-regulation, and decreased maternal sensitivity and attachment that is not made up for by rooming-in. Although research suggests that early SSC is key to successful initiation of breastfeeding, it is rarely use immediately after a healthy cesarean birth. Ã¢â¬Å"Nurses can be leaders in changing practice to incorporate early SSC into regular cesarean care for mothers and infants by ensuring that the routine care after cesarean births is family-centeredÃ and research-basedÃ¢â¬ (Berg, 2011). This research shows how nurses need to advocate for their patients and show how skin to skin contact early on even while still in the OR, can have long term positive effects for both mothers and babies This can make such a positive difference on a motherÃ¢â¬â¢s birth experience which can impact the way a hospital is viewed in the community 3). Another study pointed out that if a mother is unable to do skin to skin contact with the infant after cesarean, then the father can do the kangaroo care and still have positive effects on the infant. The goal of this study was to show the benefits of skin-to-skin contact with a newborn during the first 2 hours after birth, even if it was form the father. Twenty-nine father-infant pairs partook in a randomized controlled trial, in which infants were randomly selected to be either in the skin-to-skin contact group with their father or the standard care group. The data was collected from both groups by naturalistic observations that looked at the infants behavioral response that was recorded every 15 minutes and was given a score in the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). This research information is helpful because it shows that even skin to skin contact from the father can positively impact the newborn. SSC helps to calm the infant and facilitate a drowsy state for the infant sooner than the infants that received the standard care (Erlandsson, 2007). This information can be used to show that if a mother is unable to do SSC, the father can take over the role. This can be written into the protocol so that even cesarean under general anesthesia are still allowed to provide the best care to their newborn which is skin to skin care. Step 4: Design Practice Change Hospital policies need to be re-evaluated anytime there is evidence based research that supports change in the way healthcare is practiced. Taking babies away from the mother after cesarean birth is a long held practice and now research shows that this is not beneficial to mother or baby. Showing that even a father providing SSC can benefit the child it a huge step. Nurses need to be the ones to advocate for their patients and show the research to the physicians as well as hospital administration in order to get the ball rolling and change the way we care for cesarean mothers and infants. Step 5: Implement and Evaluate the Change in Practice Policy reviewed by a committee and re-written so that skin to skin contact between mother and infant or father and infant is allowed immediately after cesarean in the OR unless there is a life threatening issue to mom or baby which would override the skin to skin contact. Providing in-services to inform staff and physicians to the policy change and the benefits that skin to skin contact has for mothers and infants. Keep a log of cesarean deliveries, whether skin to skin contact was implemented, at what point in the delivery was the skin to skin contact initiated and for how long, any issues, and any comments from the parents on how this affected their birth experience. This information should be over a six month study period. Step 6: Integrate and Maintain the Change in Practice The information obtained should help show the benefits of skin to skin contact to all mothers and babies whether they deliver vaginally or cesarean. Hospital policy should be re-written so that all mothers or fathers are able to do skin to skin contact no matter how they deliver and only if there is a life threatening issue to mom or baby would this override the kangaroo care after delivery. Once the policy is rewritten then all staff including physicians will adhere to the policy in order to provide the best possible care to all mothers and their newborn infants. Summary Skin to skin contact or kangaroo care has only been used for vaginal mothers and infants. However, now research has shown that an infant can do skin to skin contact with its mother or father in the OR without any potential issue to the mother or baby. In fact the research shows that it is very beneficial to the mother and infant if they do skin to skin contact immediately after delivery. The setback of cesarean section is having the baby whisked away from the OR to the nursery. If they are shown the evidence based research on how skin to skin immediately after cesarean can benefit both mother and infant and how it can improve the overall birth experience, then they will be more likely to initiate the change in policy and practice.